Angioplasty Surgery steps
The steps of angioplasty surgery are described as below:
Puncturing the vessel: The first step in Angioplasty surgery
The patient’s skin is cleaned with an antiseptic solution at the site where the surgeon will insert the catheter and other equipment, and the area is protected with a sterile drape. Although many angioplasties are performed by puncturing the vessel through the skin, others are done by surgically exposing the site of entry. Direct view of the vessel’s puncture site aids in monitoring damage to the vessel or excessive bleeding at the site.
Establishing the “road map”: The next step in angioplasty surgery
After the vessel has been punctured and the guide-wire introduced, a fluoroscope is used to monitor the small amounts of contrast media that have been injected. This technique allows the surgeon to see the guidewire’s movement through the vessel. If the fluoroscope has a feature called ‘‘road map,’’ the amount of contrast media injected is greater in order to define the full route the guide-wire will take. The fluoroscopy system then superimposes subsequent images over the road map while the physician moves the guide-wire along the mapped route to the destination.
After reaching the site of stenosis: The final steps of angioplasty surgery
When the surgeon reaches the location of the stenosis, he or she inflates the balloon on the catheter that has been passed along the guidewire. The size of the balloon and the duration of its inflation depend on the size and location of the vessel. In some cases, the surgeon may also use a stent, which is opened or expanded inside the blood vessel after it has been guided to the proper location.
The blood vessel may be widened before, during, or after the stent has been opened up. In cases where the vessel is tortuous (twisted) or at intersections of vessels, a graft may be necessary to strengthen the walls of the blood vessel. Stents, grafts, and balloon dilation may all be used together or separately. Sometimes radiation is used when a stent is placed.
After the surgeon has widened the blood vessel, he or she verifies its patency by using fluoroscopy and contrast media to produce an angiogram, by using intravascular ultrasound, or by using both techniques. After the imaging studies have been completed, the surgeon removes the equipment from the blood vessel and closes the puncture site.